The International Organ Festival - The Great Organ

SAINT MAURICE ORGAN

It is not possible to find out the exact date of building the first organ in St. Maurice church in Olomouc. It is mostly the result of missing archive sources, frequent fires and other influences mainly connected to war. This is the reason why we can only partly revise the development of the Maurice organ. The first notice about the organist was found in 1496. Later there were found some more pieces of information about the organs and organists too. The first musical instrument, built after the fire in 1709, was very small manual which is now standing at the altar of Virgin Mary Painful that was built by an Olomouc organist Antonín Schack in 1716.

During the renovation of the church after the last fire the back part of the church was also repaired. In 1730 the baroque choir was built, which was decorated with wooden carved railings. This action was initiated by František Řehoř Giannini, an art loving provost. Josef Emanuel Heintzler, an organ builder from Olomouc, was charged to realize building of new organ, unfortunately he died after short time. His task was overtaken by Master organ builder Michael Engler from Wroclaw, born in 1688 and died in 1760, who was labelled a founder of Silesian organ business.

Michael Engler left the original concept of J. Heintzler and suggested a new concept, much better and more modern according to him. He also changed the disposition of the instrument, in comparison to the old project it was supposed to have three manuals and have 44 different sounds. The playing table became a part of the organ and the instrument, which was divided in C and C-sharp parts, had a MAIN MACHINE, UPPER MACHINE, DOWN MACHINE and a PEDAL.

 

The sorting of single registers was written under their names. Richly decorated organ case and the railing of a choir were made by a wood carver Filip Satler and a joiner Jan Jiří Ehrlich. The building of the organ started in 1740 and the instrument was festively handed over on the 21st of September 1745. All this action cost 19 thousand of golden coins, which were supposed to be paid by Gianni himself, however he wasn´t able to pay such an amount of money before his death in 1758. From that moment this instrument started to be

called The Queen of Moravian Organ because of its sound and architectonic monumentality.

During the centuries the organ has been serving for wide public and as one out of many it has survived the Second World War. Most of other works of Michael Engler has been destroyed. This is the reason why the Czech government added this organ on the list of the most famous sights in our country in 1959. It has also been decided that the whole instrument was not only going to be conserved and impregnated but also enlarged in a such size that organists would be able to interpret very difficult works of contemporary authors on it.

 

The plans of the reconstruction were made by prof. Antonín Schindler together with the National Heritage Institute. Antonin Schindler also supervised the whole process.

The work was realised by our biggest art company RIEGER-KLOSS VARHANY KRNOV during the years 1959 - 1970. Thanks to its size the Maurice organ is the biggest in the Czech Republic and one of the biggest in Europe. Next to maintaining the usage of organ table alone, the whole instrument has been enlarged and connected to new five-manual keyboard that has been constructed in compliance with Antonin Schindler´s project. Nowadays it has 97 registers and more than 8000 pipes and sound centres. The biggest pipe is 11,75 metres high, has a diameter 56cm and weighs 120kg. The smallest pipe is 5cm long and has a diameter 3mm. Total expenses of the reconstruction were more three milions of Czech crowns, the republic has payed 2,5milions and the rest has been paid by parish office. The organ has been used mostly to liturgical purpose. Every year the International Organ Festival is held in Olomouc where the audience can hear the best organists from the whole world.

Engler´s organ in Saint Maurice church belongs to the most precious sights of Olomouc and has permanently been visited by many tourists. In 2000 the organ and the keyboards went through another modernisation (mainly the electric duct and electronics of manuals – register computer, MIDI interface...).

 

The Disposition of the Organ:

 

I. - Unterwerk

1. Handregisterfeststeller 
2. Principal 8` 
3. Flaut amabile 8` 
4. Unda maris 1 X 8` 
5. Oktave 4` 
6. Flaut minor 4` 
7. Trinuna 4` 
8. Spitzflaut 2 2/3` 
9. Superoktave 2` 
10. Mixtur 4 X 11/3` 
11. Glocken I.
12. Glocken II. 
13. III - I 8` 
14. IV - I 8` 
15. V Sp - I 8` 
16. V Bw - I 8` 

II. - Hauptwerk

17. Hauptwerk ab 
18. Principal 16` 
19. Bourdonflaut 16` 
20. Salicet 16` 
21. Principal 8`
22. Flaut major 8` 
23. Gemshorn 8` 
24. Gamba 8` 
25. Oktave 4`
26. Nachthorn 4` 
27. Quinte 2 2/3 ` 
28. Cimbel 2 X 2`
29. Mixtur 6 X 2`
30. Trompete 8` 
31. I - II 8` 
32. III - II 8` 
33. IV - II 8` 
34. V Sp - II 8` 
35. V Bw - II 8`

 

III. - Oberwerk

36. Principal 8` 
37. Flaut allemand 8` 
38. Rohrflaut 8` 
39. Quintadena 8` 
40. Oktave 4` 
41. Quinte 2 2/3` 
42. Superoktave 2` 
43. Mixtur 4 X 1 1/3`
44. Vox humana 8` 
45. Glocken I. 
46. Glocken II. 
46a Echo 
47. IV - III 8` 
48. V Sp - III 8` 
49. V Bw - III 8` 
50. Tremolo AW 
51. Handregister ab 
52. Walze ab
53. Zungen ab (general) 
54. Man. 16´ und Ped. 32´ab 
55. Mixturen ab

 

IV. - Schwellwerk

56. Spitzgedact 16` 
57. Weitprincipal 8` 
58. Rohrgedackt 8` 
59. Harfpfeife 8` 
60. Vox angelica 3 X 8`-4`-4` 
61. Kupferoktave 4` 
62. Spillflöte 4` 
63. Rohrquintatön 4` 
64. Nachthornquinte 2 2/3` 
65. Quintadecima 2` 
66. Waldflöte 2` 
67. Koppelflötenterz 1 3/5` 
68. Querflöte 1`
69. Farbenmixtur 3-4 X 
70. Mixtur 6-7 X 
71. Quintzimbel 3 X 1/4` 
72. Bassethorn 16`
73. Franz. Trompete 8` 
74. Rohrschalmei 8` 
75. Geigendregal 8`
76. Clairon 4` 
77. Glocken I 
78. Glocken II 
79. V Sp - IV 8` 
80. V Bw - IV 8` 
81. Tremolo IV

 

V. - Schwellpositiv

82. Schwellpositiv ab 
83. Gedact 8` 
84. Trichterprincipal 4` 
85. Blockflöte 4` 
86. Kleinprincipal 2` 
87. Quinte 1 1/3`
88. Schwegel 1` 
89. Sesquialtera 2-3 X 
90. Scharf 5 X 1` 
91. Krummhorn 8` 
92. Singend Kornett 4`
93. Tremolo V Sp

 

V. - Bombardenwerk 

94. Bombardenwerk ab
95. Holzprincipal 8` 
96. Solokornett 4-6 X 4`
97. Principalmixtur 8 X 4`
98. Trompete 16` 
99. Trompete (horiz.) 8`
100. Trompete (horiz.) 4`

 

Pedal (Neues Werk) 

101. Pedal NW ab 
102. Holzprincipal 16` 
103. Gedackpommer 16` 
104. Grossnasat 10 2/3` 
105. Kupferprincipal 8` 
106. Bleikoppelflöte 8` 
107. Choralbass 4` 
108. Rohrpfeife 4` 
109. Russischhorn 2` 
110. Rauschbass 5 X 5 1/3`

111. Mixtur 6 X 2` 
112. Bombarde 16` 
113. Trompete 8`
114. Kopftrompete 2` 
115. Zink 2`
116. Akustik 21 1/3` 
117. IV - P 8` 
118. V Sp - P 8` 
119. V Bw - P 8`

 

Pedal (Altes Werk) 

120. Pedal AW ab 
121. Maiorbass 32` 
122. Principal 16`
123. Offenerbass 16`
124. Subbass 16` 
125. Quintadenbass 16` 
126. Oktavenbass 8`
127. Gemshornquinte 5 1/3`

128. Mixtur 6 X 4`
129. Contraposaune 32` 
130. Posaune 16`
131. Trombabass 8`
132. Clarino 4`
133. I - P 8` 
134. II - P 8` 
135. III - P 8`